request / response

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(by Matt Silverlock)


Testing Your (HTTP) Handlers in Go

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You’re building a web (HTTP) service in Go, and you want to unit test your handler functions. You’ve got a grip on Go’s net/http package, but you’re not sure where to start with testing that your handlers return the correct HTTP status codes, HTTP headers or response bodies.

Let’s walk through how you go about this, injecting the necessary dependencies, and mocking the rest.

A Basic Handler

We’ll start by writing a basic test: we want to make sure our handler returns a HTTP 200 (OK) status code. This is our handler:

// handlers.go
package handlers

// e.g. http.HandleFunc("/health-check", HealthCheckHandler)
func HealthCheckHandler(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
    // A very simple health check.
    w.WriteHeader(http.StatusOK)
    w.Header().Set("Content-Type", "application/json")

    // In the future we could report back on the status of our DB, or our cache 
    // (e.g. Redis) by performing a simple PING, and include them in the response.
    io.WriteString(w, `{"alive": true}`)
}

And this is our test:

// handlers_test.go
package handlers

import (
    "net/http"
    "net/http/httptest"
    "testing"
)

func TestHealthCheckHandler(t *testing.T) {
    // Create a request to pass to our handler. We don't have any query parameters for now, so we'll
    // pass 'nil' as the third parameter.
    req, err := http.NewRequest("GET", "/health-check", nil)
    if err != nil {
        t.Fatal(err)
    }

    // We create a ResponseRecorder (which satisfies http.ResponseWriter) to record the response.
    rr := httptest.NewRecorder()
    handler := http.HandlerFunc(HealthCheckHandler)

    // Our handlers satisfy http.Handler, so we can call their ServeHTTP method 
    // directly and pass in our Request and ResponseRecorder.
    handler.ServeHTTP(rr, req)

    // Check the status code is what we expect.
    if status := rr.Code; status != http.StatusOK {
        t.Errorf("handler returned wrong status code: got %v want %v",
            status, http.StatusOK)
    }

    // Check the response body is what we expect.
    expected := `{"alive": true}`
    if rr.Body.String() != expected {
        t.Errorf("handler returned unexpected body: got %v want %v",
            rr.Body.String(), expected)
    }
}

As you can see, Go’s testing and httptest packages make testing our handlers extremely simple. We construct a *http.Request, a *httptest.ResponseRecorder, and then check how our handler has responded: status code, body, etc.

If our handler also expected specific query parameters or looked for certain headers, we could also test those:

    // e.g. GET /api/projects?page=1&per_page=100
    req, err := http.NewRequest("GET", "/api/projects",
        // Note: url.Values is a map[string][]string
        url.Values{"page": {"1"}, "per_page": {"100"}})
    if err != nil {
        t.Fatal(err)
    }

    // Our handler might also expect an API key.
    req.Header.Set("Authorization", "Bearer abc123")

    // Then: call handler.ServeHTTP(rr, req) like in our first example.

Further, if you want to test that a handler (or middleware) is mutating the request in a particular way, you can define an anonymous function inside your test and capture variables from within by declaring them in the outer scope.

    // Declare it outside the anonymous function
    var token string
    test http.HandlerFunc(func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request){
        // Note: Use the assignment operator '=' and not the initialize-and-assign 
        // ':=' operator so we don't shadow our token variable above.
        token = GetToken(r)
        // We'll also set a header on the response as a trivial example of 
        // inspecting headers.
        w.Header().Set("Content-Type", "application/json")
    })

    // Check the status, body, etc.

    if token != expectedToken {
        t.Errorf("token does not match: got %v want %v", token, expectedToken)
    }

    if ctype := rr.Header().Get("Content-Type"); ctype != "application/json") {
        t.Errorf("content type header does not match: got %v want %v",
            ctype, "application/json")
    }

Tip: make strings like application/json or Content-Type package-level constants, so you don’t have to type (or typo) them over and over. A typo in your tests can cause unintended behaviour, becasue you’re not testing what you think you are.

You should also make sure to test not just for success, but for failure too: test that your handlers return errors when they should (e.g. a HTTP 403, or a HTTP 500).

Populating context.Context in Tests

What about when our handlers are expecting data to be passed to them in a context.Context? How we can create a context and populate it with (e.g.) an auth token and/or our User type?

Go 1.7 added the Request.Context() method, thus supporting request contexts natively. We’ll use what net/http provides to make our application compatible with as many libraries as we might need in the future.

Note that for the below example, the standard http.Handler and http.HandlerFunc types. Whilst these testing methods are easy enough to ‘port’ to other routers using their own types, the best routers are those that are compatible with Go’s existing interfaces. chi and gorilla/mux are my picks.

func TestGetProjectsHandler(t *testing.T) {
    req, err := http.NewRequest("GET", "/api/users", nil)
    if err != nil {
        t.Fatal(err)
    }

    rr := httptest.NewRecorder()
    // e.g. func GetUsersHandler(ctx context.Context, w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request)
    handler := http.HandlerFunc(GetUsersHandler)

    // Populate the request's context with our test data.
    ctx := req.Context()
    ctx = context.WithValue(ctx, "app.auth.token", "abc123")
    ctx = context.WithValue(ctx, "app.user",
        &YourUser{ID: "qejqjq", Email: "user@example.com"})
    
    // Add our context to the request: note that WithContext returns a copy of
    // the request, which we must assign.
    req = req.WithContext(ctx)
    handler.ServeHTTP(rr, req)

    // Check the status code is what we expect.
    if status := rr.Code; status != http.StatusOK {
        t.Errorf("handler returned wrong status code: got %v want %v",
            status, http.StatusOK)
    }
}

Extending this, we can also test that middleware populating the context does so correctly:

// e.g. middleware.go
func RequestIDMiddleware(h http.Handler) http.Handler {
	fn := func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
		// More correctly, we'd use a const key of type struct{} and a random ID via
		// crypto/rand.
		ctx := context.WithValue(r.Context(), "app.req.id", "12345")

		h.ServeHTTP(w, r.WithContext(ctx))
	}

	return http.HandlerFunc(fn)
}

// e.g. middleware_test.go
func TestPopulateContext(t *testing.T) {
	req, err := http.NewRequest("GET", "/api/users", nil)
	if err != nil {
		t.Fatal(err)
	}

	testHandler := http.HandlerFunc(func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
		if val, ok := r.Context().Value("app.req.id").(string); !ok {
			t.Errorf("app.req.id not in request context: got %q", val)
		}
	})

	rr := httptest.NewRecorder()
	// func RequestIDMiddleware(h http.Handler) http.Handler
	// Stores an "app.req.id" in the request context.
	handler := RequestIDMiddleware(testHandler)
	handler.ServeHTTP(rr, req)
}

Running go test in our package should see this pass. The inverse of this approach is also useful - e.g. testing that admin tokens aren’t incorrectly applied to the wrong users or contexts aren’t passing the wrong values to wrapped handlers.

Mocking Database Calls

Our handlers expect that we pass them a datastore.ProjectStore (an interface type) with three methods (Create, Get, Delete). We want to stub this for testing so that we can test that our handlers (endpoints) return the correct status codes.

You should read this Thoughtbot article and this article from Alex Edwards if you’re looking to use interfaces to abstract access to your database.

// handlers_test.go
package handlers

// Throws errors on all of its methods.
type badProjectStore struct {
    // This would be a concrete type that satisfies datastore.ProjectStore.
    // We embed it here so that our goodProjectStub type has all the methods
    // needed to satisfy datastore.ProjectStore, without having to stub out
    // every method (we might not want to test all of them, or some might be
    // not need to be stubbed.
    *datastore.Project
}

func (ps *projectStoreStub) CreateProject(project *datastore.Project) error {
    return datastore.NetworkError{errors.New("Bad connection"}
}

func (ps *projectStoreStub) GetProject(id string) (*datastore.Project, error) {
    return nil, datastore.NetworkError{errors.New("Bad connection"}
}

func TestGetProjectsHandlerError(t *testing.T) {
    var store datastore.ProjectStore = &badProjectStore{}

    // We inject our environment into our handlers.
    // Ref: http://elithrar.github.io/article/http-handler-error-handling-revisited/
    env := handlers.Env{Store: store, Key: "abc"}

    req, err := http.NewRequest("GET", "/api/projects", nil)
    if err != nil {
        t.Fatal(err)
    }

    rr := httptest.Recorder()
    // Handler is a custom handler type that accepts an env and a http.Handler
    // GetProjectsHandler here calls GetProject, and should raise a HTTP 500 if
    // it fails.
    handler := Handler{env, GetProjectsHandler)
    handler.ServeHTTP(rr, req)

    // We're now checking that our handler throws an error (a HTTP 500) when it
    // should.
    if status := rr.Code; status != http.StatusInternalServeError {
        t.Errorf("handler returned wrong status code: got %v want %v"
            rr.Code, http.StatusOK)
    }

    // We'll also check that it returns a JSON body with the expected error.
    expected := []byte(`{"status": 500, "error": "Bad connection"}`)
    if !bytes.Equals(rr.Body.Bytes(), expected) {
        t.Errorf("handler returned unexpected body: got %v want %v",
        rr.Body.Bytes(), expected)
    }

This was a slightly more complex example—but highlights how we might:

What Next?

This is by no means an exhaustive guide, but it should get you started. If you’re stuck building a more complex example, then ask over on the Gophers Slack community, or take a look at the packages that import httptest via GoDoc.


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